Learning Objectives: ), Human Geography: A History for the Twenty-First Century (London, 2004), 17. Against this, materialist perspectives propose that cultural battles create explicit inequalities in the way that space is occupied and used by members of different groups.15, Human geography took a postmodern turn in the 1990s, producing a form of inquiry that tied the study of geography with social justice and focused on pluralities, binaries, positionalities and deconstruction. The scale shifted through this approach is not just geographic, nor merely epistemological; it is methodological, as Barraclough and Melillo urge us to slide the scale of historical inquiry. 1 (Feb. 1952), pp. Key Question: Human Geography • The study of how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with each other in places and across space, and how we make sense of others and ourselves in our locality, region, and world. geography projects and investigations with the goal of increasing children’s connections with their physical environments, children enhance their cognitive skills as well as social and emotional ones. 1 While this separation seems neat, historians tend to study time and place as parallel concepts; when they merge, spatial history (and historical geography) follows. Philip Ziegler, The Black Death (London, 1969); Mengel, ‘A Plague on Bohemia?’, 12. A. Soboul, ‘The French Rural Community in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries’, Past and Present, no. Like the field of human geography, spatial history in Past and Present responded to the influence of the postmodern and linguistic turns, though, unlike human geography, it never turned away from social issues and only recently became a more technical venture. Beides ist im Zeitalter der unaufhaltsamen Internationalisierung der Wissenschaften wenig empfehlenswert. The articles are not introduced in strict chronological order but are, rather, grouped according to approach or method. Okey’s acceptance of the arbitrariness of borders and his method of studying spatial discourse show the clear influence of postmodern debates, while his argument for a historical region based on physical geography and sentiment fit within a humanist narrative of place. Both see the parish as defining this space: for Soboul, as boundary; for Jones, as soul. In the twenty-first century, many studies in spatial history analyse maps as texts, rather than creating them. 5 (Nov. 1954). GEOGRAPHICAL SPACE: IT DEFINES SPACE ORGANIZED BY SOCIETY-HUMAN GROUPS IN THEIR INTERRELATION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT. In general, the structures which control and influence the conditions of the economy are usually dissected microscopically here. Pages: 18–19, 22–29 Skill 3.B . Okey sees in the study of geography a way out of the definitional confusion, arguing that central Europe should be understood as a ‘historical region’.55. Humanistic geography achieves an understanding of the human world by studying people's relations with nature, their geographi-cal behavior as well as their feelings and ideas in regard to space and place. Past and Present, no. Yet, there is no overwhelming drive towards quantitative approaches or even mapping software that requires specific technical knowledge.122 Instead, the articles on space, place and scale in Past and Present have continually provoked their readers to consider how we relate to the space around us, how we make of it our own place, what hierarchies we create within it, how we imagine and relate it to other places, and how we represent it to others. As Phil Hubbard states in his article ‘Space/Place’, ‘the key question about space and place is not what they are, but what they do’.3, Historiographical studies of human geography outline a disjointed narrative: geography emerged in the early nineteenth century, characterized by environmental determinism and historicism.4 It became an arm of European imperialism, and fell into a crisis of disciplinary definition until the publication of Richard Hartshorne’s ‘Nature of Geography’ in 1939.5 Hartshorne urged geographers to focus on spatial distributions rather than time. Cited in Hubbard, ‘Space/Place’, 42–3. Factors that induce people to leave old residences. ), Cultural Geography: A Critical Dictionary of Key Concepts (London, 2005), 47. Lawrence Stone, ‘Notes: History and Post-Modernism’, Past and Present, no. Patrick Joyce, ‘History and Post-Modernism, I’, and Catriona Kelly, ‘History and Post-Modernism, II’, both in Past and Present, no. Google Scholar. Amanda Vickery, ‘An Englishman’s Home Is His Castle? Approximate Time Required: 45–60 minutes. It contributes to a small but growing pool of articles outlining the historiography of spatial history. Though some had turned to social interests, the Second World War, the Cold War and McCarthyism in the United States presented significant obstacles. ), Philosophy in Geography (Dordrecht, 1979), 388–90. Nevertheless, geography has not as yet formulated an explicit and unambiguous definition of geographical space. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography. Just as, in Nigel Thrift’s words, space is the ‘fundamental stuff of human geography’, time, one might add, is the ‘stuff’ of history.1 While this separation seems neat, historians tend to study time and place as parallel concepts; when they merge, spatial history (and historical geography) follows. ), The Spatial Turn: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (London, 2009), 1. Gould and Strohmayer, ‘Geographical Visions’, 10–15. 1.5. Examples of such analysis include the distribution of … Tourism geography is the study of travel and tourism, as an industry and as a social and cultural activity. Human lives can be studied in terms of geography, and for this, we turn to spatial distribution. The most obvious divergences occur in articles focused on the pre-national period in Europe, which refer, instead, to regional designations of space. In the introduction to Past and Present’s first issue, the editors eschew the statistical and technical form of scholarship that overcame fields like geography, stating that, while ‘some are no doubt stimulating’, these methods ‘are unable to deal with any but the simplest forms of historical change’ and instead mislead by way of ‘technical sophistication’.26 Importantly, history in Past and Present was to be relevant: We should perhaps to-day rely, not on discovering past parallels, but on understanding how change took place in the past; but we share the belief of Polybius in the value of history for the present, and in particular his conception of historical discipline as an instrument enabling us ‘to face coming events with confidence’. Human geography. Writing during the cold war, Barraclough warns that there are only two options for the modern world: communism (‘a plausible solution for the countless millions of “under-privileged” in Asia and Africa as well as in Europe’) or the path of conquest of ‘living-space’ at the expense of others (‘a solution which entails famine, bloodshed, want, destruction, and its result can only be the survival of the least fit, the crudest, earthiest and least civilized’).35 Barraclough’s desire to slide the scale of historical inquiry from the national and European to an integrated, world history was not just academic; it was a moral imperative which he saw as having drastic consequences. Yet they did not simply ‘overcome distance’; they also created ‘imaginative geographies’ producing ‘particular ways of reading unknown landscapes’. Spatial distribution refers to the set of geographic observations depicting the importance of the behavior of an extraordinary phenomenon or characteristic across different locations on the earth's surface. Human geography is still practiced, and more specialized fields within it have developed to further aid in the study of cultural practices and human activities as they relate spatially to the world. Importantly, he recognizes that borders are arbitrary, but he still accepts and asserts that the category of Mitteleuropa is valid.56 The question is not whether it exists, but what factor unites and defines it. People's ability to carry out particular projects is limited by capacity, coupling, and authority constraints. Maddykinns. 174 (Feb. 2002). For it is precisely the fixation on the European conquest as the ultimate source of historical explanations of the present that lies at the base of the binary construct which has denied historicity to Andean peoples, while conceiving of them as ‘remnants’, vestiges, unevolved and, ultimately, ‘ethnic’.73. By examining spatial history in Past and Present (a journal with an explicitly social character) I show that, while the study of human geography turned away from social concerns from the 1940s to the 1960s, it was concern with social history that made the space of Past and Present a place for spatial studies. Zierhofer says that traditional geography took space as a container, as a cause, and as a consequence of activities. Courtney J Campbell, Space, Place and Scale: Human Geography and Spatial History in Past and Present, Past & Present, Volume 239, Issue 1, May 2018, Pages e23–e45, https://doi.org/10.1093/pastj/gtw006. 6, NO. It is also about how it matters. While physical geography is the study of the natural environment, human We found that tweet locations at diﬀerent levels of scale, such as country and city, can be well predicted by the underlying living structure. 91 (May 1981). the set of all points that can be reached by an individual given a maximum possible speed from a starting point in space-time and an ending point in space-time spatial interaction the movement of people, goods and ideas within and across geographic space in human movement and migration studies, a measure of an individual's perceived satisfaction for approval of a place in its social, economic, or environmental attributes. Changes like these have triggered climate change, soil erosion, poor air quality, and undrinkable water. Most children are born ready and eager to explore their physical world. Barraclough dedicates most of the article to a presentation of Walter Prescott Webb’s book The Great Frontier, recognizing it as a ‘bold attempt’ to examine modern history through the frontier created by the arrival of Europeans in the Americas in 1492 and the centuries of interaction generated by this encounter.32 For Webb, it was Christopher Columbus’ voyage to the New World that made the Renaissance and the Reformation possible, and it was the ‘windfalls’, or commodities, produced by the European exploitation of this frontier that created the foundation for the Industrial Revolution, making the frontier ‘the matrix of the modern world’.33 Barraclough does not fully agree with Webb’s conclusions, and spends the bulk of the article offering detailed criticism; yet, he does agree with Webb on one main point: that the conquest of the frontier brought the world together as one, binding the history of modern Europe to that of the Americas.34 Barraclough argues that, as the European age came to a close, the world became ‘frontierless’, creating an environment within which fascism and dictators, specifically Hitler, arose. Since traversing space requires time and many activities require the co-presence of individuals or presence at a particular location, not all projects can be realized. Referring to it as an ethnic identity inadvertently associates the group with the Inca or even the pre-Inca, that is, with a rustic and distant past.72, it is not just a ‘chronology’ or an understanding of the past which is at stake here, but rather the way it shapes (and is shaped by) the language with which we perceive and define society and humanity in the present. the space within which daily activity occurs. Cyclic movement deals with human mobility. He discards culture, religion, politics and economics as categories that could define the region.57 Instead, he finds that geographical studies reveal ‘a transitional zone of mountains, basins and counter-flowing river systems, shaping a pattern of ethnic splintering implausible in the vast plains of the continental east or extensive peninsulas of the Atlantic west’.58 These geographic formations funnelled migrations, exposed groups in open spaces and led to ‘attempts of a clutch of small and medium-sized peoples to assert their identities against more powerful neighbours on their flanks’.
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