american consumerism vs other countries

In particular, consumerism plays an important role in modern democratic countries with mixed economies such as: the United States, England, France, Canada, etc. Rather than maintaining a passive or reactive stance, the multinational firms can utilize their experiences in developed countries to shape consumer programs in developing nations that reflect their interests. He has a regular TV show on consumer problems in Rio. How are the products and resources we consume actually produced? However, a catalyst is needed to precipitate the movement. James Truslow Adams, an accomplished historian born in 1878, is credited with coining the term, “the American dream.” At its heart, it held true to Jefferson’s vision of the “pursuit of happiness.”In The Epic of America, Adams spoke of this dream: “[the] American Dream of a better, richer and happier life for all of our citizens of every rank…that dream or hope has been present from the start. (d)  Quality of Local versus Exported Products. Others argue for decriminalization to minimize the crime and health effects associated with the market being controlled by criminals. As bad as the U.S. personal saving rate looks, it’s not the worst. Some of the impetus, of course, will hinge on the future actions of the Brazilian government. Residents of Sao Paulo also battled the city over plans to build a paper factory at the headwaters of what is said to be the state's last unpolluted river. This paper adopts a model developed by Kotler to the analysis of consumerism in developing countries. Generally speaking, the countries that produce the most are going to be ones that spend the most. The emergence of a generalized belief and certain precipitating factors could activate the dormant movement. American materialism is a concept put forth globally as a widely known "social fact"/stereotype (Roberts, 2004; Fox, 2001). 2. There is pressure on consumers to spend all their income, because attempts at saving are futile due to inflation. Despite its importance, international consumerism has not been systematically discussed in current literature. 3. In Poland the recent food riots were the result of consumers seeking redress for some basic dissatisfactions. Businesses and advertising are major engines in promoting the consumption of products so that they may survive. The article focuses on Brazil because: (1) it is a developing country faced with problems which are typical of those encountered in developing countries; (2) it contributes significantly to the overall Latin American economy by virtue of being the biggest country in Latin America and (3) the authors have been able to gather first hand information during recent visits. First, the press in Brazil is not absolutely free. Professional consumer spokespersons, politicians and the media (5) mobilize for action to solve the identified problems. Political and economic systems that are currently promoted and pushed around the world in part to increase consumption also lead to immense poverty and exploitation. Lisa Bolton, Pennsylvania State University, USA. highered their own tariffs to prevent american goods from being sold there. "But this is America, you say, all this is possible." Today’s consumption is a major cause of environmental degradation. As a result, we see waste and misuse of the environment, as well as social and environmental degradation increasing. ", "A social movement (under any system) where buyers seek to augment their rights and powers in relation to sellers." The emergence of a generalized belief and certain precipitating factors could activate the dormant movement. Half the population is located in urban areas; approximately 35% reside in Brazil's eight largest cities. As we will also see, it is an example of a wasteful industry. The effect of this law was lower car prices, since in general prices were higher when defects could be "forgotten." In recent years, American movies, music, and TV shows have consistently gained more and more audiences worldwide. Entire volumes of research can be written on this topic so these pages provide just an insight to these issues! Inflation and other economic pressures are growing, it is likely that consumerism will soon become familiar to Brazilians. The pulp and paper industry is the single largest consumer of water used in industrial activities in OECD countries and is the third greatest industrial … The American consumer was just plain indispensable to the global economy – and for the most part, irreplaceable. While almost every language in the world is spoken in the United States, the most frequently spoken non-English languages are Spanish, Chinese, French and German. Social, Political, Economic and Environmental Issues That Affect Us All.   On the other hand, supply-side economists believe the government should cut business taxes to create jobs. The last four conditions appear to be acting as restraining influences. The consumer movement has always existed in some form throughout history in many areas of the world under a spectrum of political systems. (Diamond, Ward and Farber 1976) When these expectations are not met, frustration usually results, setting the stage for consumerism. Second, there is a predominance of fatalism among Brazilians as with the members of most underdeveloped countries. The United States, however, was at a much higher level of economic development than Brazil at the time. Rainforest destruction is one effect of the banana industry. First, a very short introduction to the country will be provided which highlights the importance of studying consumerism in Brazil. Even if some materialists swim through life with little distress, however, consumerism carries larger costs that are worth worrying about, others say. David Hardesty, University of Kentucky, USA 1. This section on the globalissues.org web site provides an insight … There are two major reasons for this problem. Guidelines for policy are suggested. (Ribeiro 1974) In essence, export products are of higher quality and have better features than those produced for domestic consumption. They found that the degree and focus of consumer concerns and consumer protection programs depended upon the level of industrial development of the country. The United States is a meritocracy in which individuals can shine, while in China, any success is regarded as a success for the company, or the family, or the team. For example, promotions used by the baby food subsidiaries of Nestles and Bristol Myers have been attacked in many developing countries (Sethi 1978). If they were available, it would likely be that the breakdowns shown for the 1995 figures will not be as wide in 2005. Games, prizes, discounts, and other gimmicks cause additional misinformation to be communicated to the Brazilian consumer. As a social movement consumerism cannot develop unless there is a generalized belief about problem in the marketplace. If consumer confidence does not exist, a generalized belief about problems and solutions will not develop. Secondly, improvements in education, and better dissimination of information through the mass media indicate that factors conducive to consumerism evolving into a broad social movement are present. In Brazil although these conditions are presently not readily apparent, a basic structure is developing that would make the maturing of the remaining conditions faster than would be expected. Yet for many product categories, Brazilian shoppers use the newspaper as the primary source of information. Likewise, until the government realizes that consumerism is an expected and important adjunct to economic development, it will not encourage the business sector to support the consumer movement or introduce the legislation to force compliance. In Poland the recent food riots were the result of consumers seeking redress for some basic dissatisfactions. CONSUMERISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES THE BRAZILIAN EXPERIENCE. In the economically mature countries, consumer issues focus upon auto safety, nutritional labeling, advertising to children, wool products labeling, boat safety, Consumer Credit Protection and the like. The market for children’s products and food is enormous. If there were all that were needed for consumerism, one would expect that Brazil would soon have a very active and vocal consumer movement. Fruit wastage contributes significantly to water waste in Asia, Latin America, and Europe, and large volumes of vegetable waste in industrialised parts of Asia and Europe. We can additionally, see that consumerism and consumption are at the core of many, if not most societies. FIGURE I FACTORS LEADING TO THE RISE OF CONSUMERISM IN BRAZIL REFERENCES Anderson, J. and Whitten, L. (November 13, 1977), "Shoddy Used Car Business," Syndicated Column Brazil Herald, 7. With increasing urbanization, groups are forming to address environmental issues. In America, average spending per person is a bit over $8,000. However very little attention has been paid to consumerism abroad, especially among developed and developing countries where consumerism is in its infancy or early growth stage. Residents in Rio made an overnight trip (in a caravan of forty cars and buses) to the neighboring state of Espirito Santo to protest government attempts to convert a world-famous biological reserve into a commercial palm plantation. Today’s consumption is a major cause of environmental degradation. Other causes include direct-to-consumer advertising, lack of transparency, the country’s free pricing system and a ban on federal negotiation of drug prices. The direction of consumerism in Brazil is yet to be determined and its leadership is still unclear. Local Purchasing Power Index. Some Current Definitions A determination of whether historical and current consumer movements can be adequately characterized by universal definitions requires an analysis of current definitions and examples. Over population is usually blamed as the major cause of environmental degradation, but the above statistics strongly suggests otherwise. What are the impacts of that process of production on the environment, society, on individuals? Various pricing alternatives are offered to consumers in advertisements in Sunday newspapers in several large Brazilian cities. These savings are now available to the consumers to either save, which encourages investment, or spend. hyper-consumerism raises other issues as well. (b)  Growth of Marketing Technology. Consumer spending is the single most important driving force of the U.S. economy. We look at things like how it affects the environment; the political and economic drivers in producing sugar (for example, historically, sugar plantations encouraged slavery); its health effects today; its relation to world hunger (as land used to grow sugar and related support, for export, could be used to grow food for local consumption); and so on. Politicians, prestige seekers and other groups coalesce and the movement is born. In Japan, you might feel pressure to cover your abdomen during a rainstorm. It is essential that American business firms strategically intervene when confronted with the growth of consumerism in developing and developed countries, rather than take a benign stance. They found that the degree and focus of consumer concerns and consumer protection programs depended upon the level of industrial development of the country. (Diamond, Ward and Farber 1976) When these expectations are not met, frustration usually results, setting the stage for consumerism. The success of a consumer movement ultimately depends upon how effectively it is organized and managed. expanded side notes, shows alternative links), use the print version: Consume 45% of all meat and fish, the poorest fifth 5%, Consume 58% of total energy, the poorest fifth less than 4%, Have 74% of all telephone lines, the poorest fifth 1.5%, Consume 84% of all paper, the poorest fifth 1.1%, Own 87% of the world’s vehicle fleet, the poorest fifth less than 1%, Generalized figures hide extreme poverty and inequality of consumption on the whole (for example, between 1995 and 2005, the inequality in consumption for the poorest fifth of humanity has hardly changed), If emerging nations follow the same path as today’s rich countries, their consumption patterns will also be damaging to the environment. There is no official language of the United States, according to the U.S. government. The U.N. statistics above are hard hitting, highlight one of the major impacts of today’s form of corporate-led globalization. How do material values influence our relationships with other people? The United States tops the list, with citizens eating an average of around 97 kg per year. While consumerism as an ideology can be present in several different types of economic systems, it is most often associated with capitalism . Using data from a global fashion retailer with a presence in multiple countries, the authors analyzed consumer-level transaction data for a random group of 30,000 customers in 30 countries from 2008 through 2013. Consumerism in Brazil is explored as a case example. Another element for mobilization is the mass media. A group in Sao Paulo organized a Walk-a-thon to focus attention on pollution within the city. The United States, however, was at a much higher level of economic development than Brazil at the time. August 19, 2015 "Keep your shirt on!" 1.7 billion people lack access to clean drinking water, and by the year 2000, the number of urban dwellers without … Furthermore, this growing middle class has higher levels of education. have been demanding more and more ever since, developing the method buy now, pay later”. Elena Ehrensperger, University of Bern In part this has been due to the lack of an appropriate methodological framework. If the trends continue without change — not redistributing from high-income to low-income consumers, not shifting from polluting to cleaner goods and production technologies, not promoting goods that empower poor producers, not shifting priority from consumption for conspicuous display to meeting basic needs — today’s problems of consumption and human development will worsen. Kotler (1972) defines consumerism as: "A social movement (under any system) where buyers seek to augment their rights and powers in relation to sellers." The government appears to be trying to participate in the process, but like all bureaucratic bodies it moves slowly. business and government relationship. Advances in Consumer Research Volume 8, 1981      Pages 718-722 CONSUMERISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES -THE BRAZILIAN EXPERIENCE John Stanton, Temple University Rajan Chandran, Temple University Jeffrey Lowenhar, Temple University ABSTRACT - Consumerism in developing countries has not been analyzed and discussed in current literature. Ultimately, Chinese and American people will find they have more similarities than cultural differences. American consumer behavior is radically different, even from other Western markets like the U.K.; the American consumer behavior can be traced to American culture’s historic roots and impacts attitudes, beliefs, principles, and ultimately buying behavior. You know what's happened to the economy and our country since then) There are growing forces making this way of life almost impossible to attain or maintain, even for the wealthy. 12 percent of the world’s population lives in North America and Western Europe and accounts for 60 percent of private consumption spending, but a third of humanity who live in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa account for only 3.2 percent. When information was available to compare the monthly price of a product with the a vista price, the tine payment method was extremely costly, even after considering the effect of inflation. … But will the geopolitics remain the same? Read “Mathematics of Wasted Labor—an Example” to learn more. In Brazil although these conditions are presently not readily apparent, a basic structure is developing that would make the maturing of the remaining conditions faster than would be expected. Unlike other developing countries, Brazil has a stable government, but it is a military government. The government appears to be trying to participate in the process, but like all bureaucratic bodies it moves slowly. After housing, medical, and other costs, there is only so much left so the reduced spending on certain items is often forced by lack of … ABSTRACT - Consumerism in developing countries has not been analyzed and discussed in current literature. In the economically mature countries, consumer issues focus upon auto safety, nutritional labeling, advertising to children, wool products labeling, boat safety, Consumer Credit Protection and the like. Kent B. Monroe, Ann Abor, MI : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 718-722. Part I A. Using latest figures available, in 2005, the wealthiest 20% of the world accounted for 76.6% of total private consumption. (Business Week 1978) After examining its economic status, one can conclude that Brazil is one of the most important emerging countries. If the government does not create an environ-meat that is conducive to consumerism, its genesis will be slow, and probably violent. 5. Many Brazilian cities are situated in areas of magnificent natural beauty, but the development of business and urban housing has been accomplished with utter disregard for the ecological balance. Several legislators have an interest in the consumer's cause, but they lack clout. (a)  Income and Educational Advances. For example, promotions used by the baby food subsidiaries of Nestles and Bristol Myers have been attacked in many developing countries (Sethi 1978). The first two antecedent conditions for the growth of consumerism structural conduciveness and strains are evident in Brazil. But, as can be seen in this article, many of the antecedent conditions that gave rise to the American movement are present in Brazil. Hendon, D. W., "Toward a Theory of Consumerism," Business Horizons, 18, 16-24. First, a very short introduction to the country will be provided which highlights the importance of studying consumerism in Brazil. Chinese society is all about the group, while Americans celebrate the individual. Catalysts or precipitating factors are usually specific events or major problems that spark the growth of the social movement, in this case, consumerism. Lack of wide media coverage has to a certain extent stifled the organization of a consumer movement in Brazil, but with the return of certain freedoms under the new government there could be better mobilization for action. Foreign investment represents a small but important part of Brazil's capital base. The banana industry in Latin America and the Caribbean also touches many other issues. In Brazil (as in other developing countries), there is censorship of the media. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Gazda, G. H., "Descriptive Theory of Consumerism," Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Proceedings of the International Marketing Conference, 5, 33-34. "There are consequences of materialism that can affect the quality of other people's and other species' lives," says Kasser. Kotler explains the social factors contributing to consumerism as a social movement. Hendon (1975) documents the fact that, historically, some manifestations of consumer discontentments have been recorded as social movements. Some 70 to 80% of grain produced in the United States is fed to livestock. Generalized Belief The existence of stress leads to the proliferation of certain consumer beliefs. The problem of marketing technology, especially unwholesome marketing technology, is exemplified by the exposure of the Brazilian consumer to subtle marketing campaigns that could cause confusion for more sophisticated consumers. Web. Country. In the United States the Boston Tea Party (1760), the Whiskey rebellion (1790), collective consumer movements of the 1900's and 1930's, and the more recent meat price agitations ware likewise based on consumer dissatisfactions. The direction of consumerism in Brazil is yet to be determined and its leadership is still unclear. The effects of the way things are produced and consumed today have impacts all around the world. Coppet, J. I., "Consumerism from a Behavioral Perspective," Akron Business and Economic Review, 5, 23-28. Politicians, prestige seekers and other groups coalesce and the movement is born. Recently oil imports have posed a problem, but they are likely to be reduced by up to 20% when a new alcohol program is operationalized. For example, in the United States Ralph Nader was a lawyer and unknown freelance writer in 1964; one year later he was the author of the well-known book Unsafe at any Speed and ignited the consumer movement. The impact on consumers might be to encourage comparative shopping. In Brazil new legislation, although still unclear, is being considered to force retailers to give both the a vista price and the monthly price with the number of payments. Such consumption beyond minimal and basic needs is not necessarily a bad thing in and of itself, as throughout history we have always sought to find ways to make our lives a bit easier to live. . The labor movement has claimed the right to strike and the middle class is increasingly discontented with the country's economic institutions and unresponsive bureaucracies. As nouns the difference between materialism and consumerism is that materialism is constant concern over material possessions and wealth; a great or excessive regard for worldly concerns while consumerism is a policy of protecting and informing consumers through honesty in advertising and packaging, improved safety standards etc. The waste in the economic system is, as a result, deep. As the country develops, problems of consumption outweigh problems of production, consumer issues become more sophisticated and less violent. Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. Price cuts in European supermarkets has led to wage cuts for workers already earning very little. The article focuses on Brazil because: (1) it is a developing country faced with problems which are typical of those encountered in developing countries; (2) it contributes significantly to the overall Latin American economy by virtue of being the biggest country in Latin America and (3) the authors have been able to gather first hand information during recent visits. Consumerism needs sustained consumer or general population support. Inflation and other economic pressures are growing, it is likely that consumerism will soon become familiar to Brazilians. In America, good luck waiting for the bus, and when you catch the subway in a bigger city, be prepared for congestion. In Brazil, although still smal1, special purpose consumer groups are beginning to form. Now, however, the American household is losing that stature. When kids lose their teeth in Greece (and reportedly other countries), they throw them on the roof. Which actors influence our choices of consumption? Of course, the question of the degree of development required before the conditions can coalesce is subjective. Consumerism in Brazil is explored as a case example. High income countries and Latin America account for 80 per cent of all meat wasted. A determination of whether historical and current consumer movements can be adequately characterized by universal definitions requires an analysis of current definitions and examples. ... activities like driving their children to … The significance of the government's position has both positive and negative potential implications. Simonsen, Henrique, Unpublished report National Business Convention (CONCLAP), Rio de Janeiro, November 6, 1977. This wastes labor, wastes capital and uses up many resources. ... the United States makes a significant … Wayne Hoyer, University of Texas at Austin, USA Consumerism needs sustained consumer or general population support. In a recent public opinion poll of the 11 million inhabitants of the Greater Sao Paulo, area, residents indicated that their major concern was air pollution. Effects of consumerism on society: Global inequality. Ribeiro, H., (1974), Em Denfinsa do Consumidor, Centro de Documentacao e informacao Coordinacao de Publicacoes. In these countries, protest over consumer issues has advanced from basic causes such as lack of food, clothing and shelter; to more sophisticated issues like consumer information reforms, consumer education, and consumer protection. Fledgling consumer groups from developing countries met at a conference in Riverdale, the Bronx, this week to set modest goals to protect consumers in their countries. There’s two types of costs to consider when thinking about healthcare, average total cost spent on services, no matter who’s paying for it, and the out of pocket costs for the consumer. In summarizing this section, one can conclude that the presence of an educated population, a prominent new middle class demanding quality goods and services, and the increasing exploitation of the environment, form the basic elements for consumerism and that the potential for consumer action exists. Consumerism is a social movement dependent upon national economic conditions. Furthermore, consumerism is an important component of the concept of supply and demand because … 9. However, the focus of the debate is limited. It might be that … Military control has been reduced and there is a movement towards a more democratic society. Pollution is yet another problem. Political discontentment is a major problem in Brazil. Start studying 1920's Quiz- Consumerism and Prosperity. How does consumerism affect the quality of life on our planet? Sethi, S. P., and Post, J. E., Infant Formula Marketing in Less Developed Countries, An analysis of Secondary effects in Proceedings of the 1978 Educators Conference, ed. Half the population is located in urban areas; approximately 35% reside in Brazil's eight largest cities. Although the United States makes a significant portion (4.5 billion) of the approximately $10 billion of foreign investments, other countries such as Japan and Germany are increasing their capital commitments. In general, it appears these efforts have made only a slight impression on Brazilian consumers. We came in 16th out of the 28 countries in 2013. Read “Effects of Consumerism” to learn more. The past drive for fossil fuel energy has led to wars, overthrow of democratically elected leaders, and puppet governments and dictatorships. After examining its economic status, one can conclude that Brazil is one of the most important emerging countries. We are beginning to get just a hint of how wasteful our societies are. In Brazil the finest coffee and leather is exported and not available for local consumption. Consumers are aware that their salaries do not rise at the same rapid rate. These factors induce greater expectations, which when unfulfilled produce (2) structural strains in the existing socioeconomic system. Many Brits see themselves as ‘European’, while Americans focus much more intently on domestic policy and issues.

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