For the past three years, Hermann Ritter had lived as a fur-trapper in Svalbard, a group of Norwegian islands that, in all regards, lie a great deal closer to the North Pole than to the couple’s comfortable home in Vienna.Christiane's voyage to him would take several weeks, but at the end was the prospect of a homely cabin, and days spent reading, writing and painting, snug and safe by the fire. Mathilde Le Moullec and her colleagues have walked more than 2000 kilometres over four field seasons in the high-Arctic Norwegian archipelago of Svalbard, all in a quest to count reindeer. Overwintering sailing expeditions also relied on reindeer for food. Hunting pressures exploded with an influx of miners and trappers in the late 1800s, when coal was first discovered on Svalbard. Males average 65–90 kg in weight, females 53–70 kg, while for other reindeer generally body mass is 159–182 kg for males and 80–120 kg for females. The Svalbard reindeer population was severely depleted by hunting in the early twentieth century. This includes both sedentary and migratory populations. The hunting in Svalbard is a normal thing to do . Description: The Svalbard reindeer (or Spitsbergen reindeer) is the only reindeer species in Svalbard. EurekAlert! Reindeer have been protected in Svalbard since 1925, but limited hunting has been introduced for locals in 1983 in designated areas in Nordenskiöld Land. Svalbard reindeer: strong male. The wild Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), which lives in the harsh archipelago of Svalbard off Norway in the Arctic Ocean, was nearly hunted to extinction in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Length 1.50 metres. The current warming rates on Svalbard are the fastest on Earth. Svalbard reindeer are unlike their southern cousins in that they tend to be docile and extremely sedentary, making them easy targets. Rangifer herd size varies greatly in different geographic regions. Svalbard reindeer: cow and calf. The available evidence shows an increase in Svalbard reindeer abundance following the 1925 management actions that banned hunting. your own Pins on Pinterest Alkhornet, early August. During the summer, you will often find reindeer hair on the tundra. The Svalbard reindeer is a small subspecies of Rangifer tarandus. The recent increase is explained with the changing climate by the the responsible biologist, Nicholas Tyler. The hunting season is in September and it is assumed that hunting does not affect the population. The Svalbard reindeer population was severely depleted by hunting in the early twentieth century. The wild Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), which lives in the harsh archipelago of Svalbard off Norway in the Arctic Ocean, was nearly hunted to extinction in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The extremely rapid climate change on Svalbard will continue to directly or indirectly affect all these animals through rainier winters, earlier springs and loss of sea ice as a travel route between islands. After his discovery, whalers, fisherfolk and explorers began to visit the islands and hunted reindeer. In 2006, 296 permits were issued, but … Mating is in October. There are accordingly very pronounced fluctuations of the population size. All turist go to hunting. Wishful thinking suggests that this is Polar bear fur, but the distinction is easy: Reindeer fur is much coarser, but breaks easily, whereas the finer Polar bear hairs are much thinner and stronger. When you go hunting you need : Warm clothes . Hunting pressures exploded with an influx of miners and trappers in the late 1800s, when coal was first discovered on Svalbard. Depleted by hunting over more than six decades, the Svalbard reindeer has been reco Although caribou and reindeer numbers have always fluctuated naturally, climate change may have contributed to this recent decline. For Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus), which lives in a harsh arctic environment, the main purpose of management is to protect naturally occurring populations. The Svalbard ecosystem contains just three overwintering creatures distributed across the archipelago: the rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta hyperborea), Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) and the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). 47-416-04443 Overwintering sailing expeditions also relied on reindeer for food. Reindeer walk across fjord ice and glaciers to move around. "This study represents a counter example to the many reindeer population status assessments reporting recent local or regional declines in abundance," Le Moullec and her co-authors wrote. Starvation during such periods and when the teeth are worn down after about ten years are the main causes of death. That means Santa’s sled either has to be pulled by young reindeer, … The population between Sassendalen and Grøndalen, where the hunting areas are located, has been on the decrease during the last 5 years and there has been a low number of calves this year. For example, if there are more reindeer overall, that means there will be an increase in carcasses, which means more food for Arctic foxes, and eventually more Arctic foxes. Now, almost one hundred years later, Le Moullec's research can tell us how well that protection worked. The Svalbard reindeer is one of at least 7 subspecies of reindeer. During their four field seasons wandering inland Svalbard to count reindeer, Le Moullec and her colleagues documented where she found ancient bones and antlers from the animals -- hundreds of them. The Svalbard reindeer lives in a natural environment where predation is virtually non-existent and only limited hunting takes place in Nordenskiöld Land. Their oldest find is an antler (or bone) that is 3600 years old -- or roughly from about the time Europe was entering the Bronze Age. SVALBARD REINDEER (#110) In April 2008 Ole J Liodden found this Svalbard reindeer on the western coast of Spitsbergen. The Svalbard reindeer have no natural predators in Svalbard, and as a result they’re not particularly afraid of humans or other animals. offers eligible public information officers paid access to a reliable news release distribution service. "Walking all those kilometres, you get to places you would otherwise never go. If there are more foxes, they may eat the eggs and young of ground-nesting birds, like geese, which come to Svalbard to raise their young. But because of their sedentary behaviour and the barriers posed by crossing glaciers, steep mountains and open fjords, this recolonization took a century. Birth rates can vary wildly from year to year depending on how hard the winters were in the previous season. "Changes in reindeer abundance therefore have important top-down and bottom-up effects on the ecosystem," Le Moullec and her co-authors wrote. Svalbard reindeer are the only reindeer species in Svalbard. Jan 18, 2018 - Things that make you go AWW! Like puppies, bunnies, babies, and so on... A place for really cute pictures and videos!. In contrast to Scandinavia where semi-wild reindeer stay together in large herds, you will see either single animals or small groups in Svalbard. Blomstrandhalvøya, mid September. Hunting pressures exploded with an influx of miners and trappers in the late 1800s, when coal was first discovered on Svalbard. And you need dokuments for gun. EurekAlert! So we started finding and collecting these ancient bones.". Hunting is also a significant part of the economy, as seal, reindeer, and fox are quite plentiful. But its protection in 1925, including a ban on hunting, has helped the reindeer population bounce back, previous estimates suggest. Other research conducted by Le Moullec's supervisor Hansen, who is also senior author on the new paper, shows that Svalbard reindeer are already being greatly affected by climate change. These dates are important because they tell the researchers which parts of the archipelago were capable of supporting reindeer populations. Most reindeer and caribou populations are on the decline; that's not the case for reindeer living close to the North Pole, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, IMAGE: Reindeer grazing on an open patch of vegetation surrounded by ice and snow. Females: Weight 53 kg in spring, 70 kg in autumn. For hunting Svalbard reindeer and seals, only rifles and hunting ammunition with expanding projectiles shall be used. For hunting you need dokuments. The Svalbard reindeer is the smallest subspecies of reindeer and has the scientific name Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus. The long time it took Svalbard reindeer to recover from intense hunting suggests that future populations will need to be managed with great care, the researchers wrote. During the following early summer, around June, a single calf will be born. view more. There are even some reindeer chewing on the very meagre vegetation in the polar deserts on Nordaustland, but they do not occur on the remotest islands of Storøya, Kvitøya, Hopen and Bjørnøya. The hunting areas are limited and the number of animals taken is controlled. She can now quite confidently state that Svalbard is home to approximately 22000 of the animals. Photo book by Joe Haschek, GE - Readers’ Comments to my german books, Arctic ice and wildlife under sail with SV Antigua, Advanced Spitsbergen with Arctica II, 2019/08/04-22, North Spitsbergen with SV Antigua, 19-29 september 2019, Gallery 1: Northwest Spitsbergen - Antigua 2018, Gallery 2: Nordaustland - Spitsbergen 2018, Gallery 4: Freemansund to Sørkapp - Spitsbergen 2018, Gallery 5: Hornsund to Isfjord - Spitsbergen 2018, Spitsbergen SY Arctica II 31 July-18 August 2018, Gallery 1: Isfjord to Fair Haven - Spitsbergen 2018, Gallery 2: Liefdefjord & Woodfjord - Spitsbergen 2018, Gallery 3: Nordaustland & Hinlopen - Spitsbergen 2018, Gallery 4: Storfjorden - Spitsbergen 2018, Gallery 5: the west coast - Spitsbergen 2018, Spitsbergen SV Antigua, 11-22 September 2018, Gallery 3: From Moffen into Woodfjord, Raudford, Fuglefjord and Kobbefjord, Lofoten-Bear Island-Spitsbergen, 05/19-2017/06/02, Gallery 1: Norway (Lofoten, Vesterålen, Tromsø), Gallery 1: The west coast (1) - 06/27-2017/07/14, Gallery 2: The east coast - 06/27-2017/07/14, Gallery 3: Heleysund and Barentsøya - 06/27-2017/07/14, Gallery 4: The west coast (2) - 06/27-2017/07/14, Gallery 5: 80 degrees, Woodfjord and Liefdefjord - 06/27-2017/07/14, Gallery 6: The west coast (3) - 06/27-2017/07/14, Tromsø-Senja-Vesterålen-Lofoten 10/29–2017/11/05, Lofoten–Bear Island–Spitsbergen 2016/05/22-06/03, Photography and hiking Longyearbyen 2016/09/04-12, Gallery 3: Back in and around Longyearbyen, Gallery 1: Spitsbergen’s northwestern corner, Gallery 3: Liefdefjord → 80 degrees north, Gallery 7: The west coast, continued further south, Gallery 1: from Iceland into Scoresbysund, Gallery 4: from Rypefjord to the Bjørne Øerne, Revneset, De Geerdalen, Fridtjovbreen, Colesbukt, Hiking Nordenskiöld Land and east coast 2007, Blomstrandhalvøya: London - Marble Island, Glacier hike from Smeerenburgfjord to Magdalenefjord, Old coal cableway: curve station Skjæringa, Spitsbergen photography – equipment and tips. Reindeer have been protected in Svalbard since 1925, but limited hunting has been introduced for locals in 1983 in designated areas in Nordenskiöld Land. For ammunition with a bullet weight of between 9 and 10 grams, the impact energy must be at least 2700 Joules (275 kg/m) at a range of 100 metres. It is a unique, relatively small subspecies. Canadian Field Naturalist, 106: 225–236. Svalbard reindeer hunting exhibition at the Polar Museum in Tromsø, Norway Some 200 reindeer were found starved to death in July 2019. The proportion of females that give birth varies strongly from ten percent in difficult years up to 90 percent in good times. Female Svalbard deer begin growing their antlers in summer and keep them all year. In 2006, 296 permits were issued, but only 178 reindeer were shot. Because of range expansion and increased densities, reindeer now occupy the entire available and original (according to subfossil bones) distribution range (Table 1 ; Fig. For example, the Rivière-George herd in northern Quebec (Canada), once the largest in the world, has declined >99% said Steeve D. Côté from Laval University in Quebec, Canada. In recent years research activities and travel to Svalbard and tourism … EurekAlert! Distribution / Migration: Reindeer occur everywhere in the Arctic, but the subspecies “Svalbard reindeer” is endemic to Svalbard. The long time it took Svalbard reindeer to recover from intense hunting suggests that future populations will need to be managed with great care, the researchers wrote. During the late spring in 2011, about 1000 reindeer were counted in Adventdalen, which gives an average density of about 6 animals per square kilometre, three times more than in Finnmark (north Norway). Description. The Svalbard reindeer is a subspecies of the reindeer and can only be located on Svalbard. During this time, strong bulls will defend a harem of up to ten cows. Herds of more than 20 animals are exceptional. The long time it took Svalbard reindeer to recover from intense hunting suggests that future populations will need to be managed with great care, the researchers wrote. Laws and regulations are in Norwegian language only. Le Moullec and her colleagues, Åshild Pedersen from the Norwegian Polar Institute, Jørgen Rosvold and Audun Stien from the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, and her supervisor from NTNU's Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Brage Bremset Hansen, aren't just looking back in time. "Such large declines have never been reported since we developed the capacity to survey populations," Côté said. The result was by 1900, the animals were more or less locally extirpated, Le Moullec said, although there were a few isolated areas where small populations persisted. Limited Edition This Fine Art Limited Edition photograph is only available in 30 copies (+ 1 proof-print for the photographer). It's a story that demonstrates how protecting a species enables their populations to recover from past overexploitation. Le Moullec can compare that information to where Svalbard reindeer are found now, so she knows how extensively the animals are recolonizing areas where they once lived. Now, Le Moullec, who received her PhD from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology's (NTNU) Department of Biology this year, can describe the long, surprising history of this unusual subspecies of reindeer. Length 1.60 metres. Miscellaneous: The size of the total population is estimated to be around 10,000 animals, thereof about 4,000 in Nordenskiöld Land, but varies from year to year. Svalbard is a Norwegian territory, a collection of nine islands at 78 degrees N, halfway between mainland Norway and the North Pole. They spend most of the day walking slowly over the tundra, feeding permanently, and do not pay any attention to humans to begin with. firstname.lastname@example.org Perhaps the most endearing animal observed on our summer 2014 sojourn in the Arctic was the Svalbard reindeer, a subspecies of reindeer endemic to the archipelago midway between continental Norway and the North Pole. Although it recovered after becoming a protected species in 1925, questions remain regarding the population’s robustness and ability to adapt to a completely new climate regime and an altered Arctic tundra landscape. Despite hunting, reindeer can be very curious and sometimes approach groups of tourists to a distance of within ten metres. They were driven near to extinction in the early 20th century due to extensive hunting, but have recovered well and can now be found in most parts of the archipelago, although man has helped on some occasions by moving small stocks within Spitsbergen to suitable areas. The body mass of males is approximately 65 kg in spring and 90 kg in autumn, while female body mass is approximately 53 kg in spring and 70 kg in autumn. Biology: Svalbard reindeer will eat almost anything that has roots and leaves, with a few exceptions such as Arctic bell-heather (Cassiope tetragona). Pay attention to this and give reindeer the right of way. It is the archipelago’s largest herbivore and is adapted to the ecosystem. Especially when periods of thaw are followed by frost and everything is covered with an impenetrable layer of hard ice, reindeer are faced with difficult times. For example, migratory caribou increased movements by nearly 30% due to changes in the freezing-thawing cycles of large water bodies in Nunavik (Canada), Côté said. In some places, Le Moullec and her colleagues walked 30-40 kilometres a day, day after day after day, on a constant lookout for both reindeer and polar bears. Svalbard reindeer are not domesticated and do not belong to anybody. The reindeer often look stocky—and sometimes fat—and have short legs. @NTNU, Copyright © 2020 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), Martin Kristiansen Walks by a Group of Reindeer on Prins Karls Forland, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART). Heleysund - Edgeøya - Barentsøya - Tusenøyane, Spitsbergen: Books, Calendar, Postcards, DVDs, Norwegens arktischer Norden (2): Aerial Arctic, 79º N - Ny Ålesund - Kongsfjorden - Biota. During the summer, they spend most of the time feeding to accumulate a thick layer of fat, which is their main energy source for the winter when food availability is low. Because this reindeer does not have a nomadic lifestyle like most of its mainland forms, it has gradually developed shorter legs. Continuous counting started in 1979 in this area, and the average from the beginning to 1995 was 650 animals. Males: Weight 65 kg in spring, 90 kg in autumn. "I call them my treasures," she said. Only the male has antlers in most ungulates. During her second field season, she sailed on a small boat with three colleagues to difficult-to-reach research sites in the east and southwestern part of Svalbard. These reindeer were almost hunted to extinction in the early 1900s, but dedicated recovery programs helped them repopulate. Mathilde Le Moullec, Åshild Ønvik Pedersen, Audun Stien, Jørgen Rosvold and Brage Bremset Hansen The Journal of Wildlife Management 83(8):1676-1686. https://doi.org/10.1002/jwmg.21761.
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